Cross Cutting Stratigies


The cross cutting issues discussed in this section impact all sub-sectors in the Plan. Some of the recommendations in this section have also been repeated (as per need) in the relevant section later in the document.

The cross cutting issues discussed in this section impact all sub-sectors in the Plan. Some of the recommendations in this section have also been repeated (as per need) in the relevant section later in the document.

All education sub-sectors have strong interdependence but no formal mechanism, or informal culture, of coordination exists for the various organisations to cross learn and formulate mutually reinforcing policies and plans. The implementation framework described in Section I partially redresses this deficit but a more detailed approach has been included in this section. Coordination needs have also been identified and included in plans for sub sectors.


Linkages across the education sector make coordination imperative for meaningful delivery. These linkages include vertical contacts across various levels of education (i.e primary, middle, secondary, higher education, TVE) as well as horizontal inter dependency among organisations like the DOS, PITE, BOC, BISE etc. Currently no formal coordination mechanisms exist. A structured coordination process, especially, for management of quality and relevance of service delivery has never been developed or even considered at the official level.

6.1.1 Recommendations

1. A regular structure for meetings among various organisations should be established. The coordination mechanism should include quarterly meetings participated by heads of Directorates of colleges and schools, Balochistan Textbook Board, Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education and the Bureau of Curriculum and Extension Centre.

2. Changes should be made in rules to ensure involvement of all relevant organisations in development of outputs like textbooks, assessment tools and curriculum.

3. PPIU should undertake the central role in coordination and ensure establishment of a functional coordination system.

6.2. Standards


The diagnostic process identified absence of standards for educational inputs, processes and outputs, especially, the last mentioned as a key deficit in provision of qualitative and relevant education in the province. National Education Policy 2009 highlights the problem as universal to the entire country and therefore, recommends ‘development of standards for educational inputs, processes and outputs’.

Plans for sub-sectors and components include standardization as fundamental to reforms. The BOC will coordinate the process for development of these standards and also function as the monitor for their implementation at the school level.

Figure 6.1: Arrangement for Standards

Figure 6.1 explains the arrangement for standards wherein the standards will be prepared for each of the organisations with BOC given the central role of monitoring. The BOC’s writ will be restricted to output level standards for each of the organisations while the latter will develop (or review) their input and process standards accordingly. To the extent the Directorate of Colleges deals with school level issues (intermediate level, residential and cadet colleges) it will form part of the process.

In case of higher education the Higher Education Commission (HEC) has already developed standards at the federal level, although, these have been targeted at universities only. Standards for college education have not been reviewed and most of the current benchmarks pertain to inputs and processes. Output level standards have not been prepared. At this level Balochistan Academy for College Teachers (BACT) should undertake the task in coordination with the University of Balochistan.

6.2.1 Recommendations

1. Standards should be developed for all inputs, processes and outputs (details in respective log frames for each area).


Development of Education


A paucity of education experts within and outside the government constrain the impact (and sustainability) of reforms. The low quality of the present education institutions, including pre-service teacher education, has not helped improve the situation. Specialised areas like curriculum review, assessments, textbooks and planning harbor the largest vacuum. Most officials working in the agencies responsible for the above have never been formally trained on the concepts. At present the deficit gets made up through an informal partnership between the few individuals within the department and the donors who provide the odd training opportunity. Sustainability and more effective implementation will require a critical mass of local quality educationists produced from within the system.

6.3.1. Recommendations

1. Professional development programmes for officials of BOC, PITE, BACT and BTBB.

2. Introduction of specialized courses on curriculum, textbooks, assessments, education planning in pre-service programme.

3. Induction programmes be introduced for new recruits, generalist managers and officers posted on deputation.

6.4. Research Culture


Most organisations in the sector have research functions that have been dormant over the last many years. Absence of internal demand for research has eroded all capacity and incentive to operationalise the function. External research also remains unutilized for the same reason. New concepts introduced over the last two decades have been, mostly, the result of donor interventions. Indigenous needs have never been explored holistically as donor projects cannot be an alternative to an internal, dynamic research function.

6.4.1. Recommendations

1. Research functions of the specialized agencies like the BTBB, BOC, PITE and BISE should be revived and strengthened.

2. Linkages should be developed between universities and the Department(s) for research on indigenous issues.


Information Communication Technologies


Low population density, long distances, poor communication infrastructure and a difficult security situation provides a need for exploration of ICT for education options. These options should also be used for creation of linkages with quality experts outside the province (nationally and internationally) to develop local expertise in specialised areas like assessments, curriculum, textbooks development and standards etc.

1. Explore options for ICT to ensure outreach for quality education delivery in Balochistan.

2. Identify potential use for link up with external expertise to develop local capacity


Capacity Development


Effective implementation of the sector plan will require review of the current organizational mandates, functions and strengths. A formal capacity assessment and development process will be part of the Sector Plan implementation. The need has been identified in individual sub-sector plans.

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