The Government of Balochistan decided to develop an education sector plan in early 2011. The purpose was to create an instrument for organizing reforms into an interlinked, structured whole. The instrument would assist coordinated implementation, feedback on impact of the reforms through a monitoring process and the flexibility to adjust to implementation, design or environmental factors based on periodic review. The sector plan is expected to guide the reform process for a long period as a living and mutable instrument.


2.1.	Methodology
Development of the current sector plan document has been the result of a two step process:
1.	Situation Analysis of the Education Sector
2.	Development of a Sector Plan on the basis of the Situation Analysis
The sector plan itself consists of identification of issues, development and prioritization of strategies and finally costing.

Situation Analysis

2.1.1.	Situation Analysis
The objectives of the Situation Analysis were:
i.	Present a comprehensive picture of the education sector in Balochistan in terms of the inputs,
	processes, outputs and outcomes
ii.	Highlight the key gaps and strengths of the sector including capacity issues.
iii.	Identify the internal and external threats and opportunities.
iv.	Develop a set of draft policy options. 
v.	Assist in evaluating priority areas for reforms.

This ‘Situation Analysis’ was jointly conducted by UNICEF and UNESCO as the latter initiated the research process 
	and then UNICEF completed it.  The analysis was based on a widely consultative process as follows:
I.	Focus Group Discussions conducted within thematic groups formed for different areas of the education sector.
II.	 SWOT workshops conducted with all the concerned organizations. 
III.	Interviews and Focus Group Discussions with District Education Officers, Head teachers, teachers, students,
 community members, local NGOs and head of Madrassas in 10 districts.
IV.	Visits to educational institutions. 
These tools were used at both the Quetta based provincial level consultations as well as district levels. 

Thematic Groups consisting of officials of different organizations in the education sector were formed to inform the process (these groups continued into the sector plan development and will form part of the implementation process). Each group was headed by a focal person of the most directly relevant organization. The following groups headed by organizations mentioned contributed to the development of the situation analysis report:

I.	Curriculum:	Bureau of Curriculum and Extension Centre (BOC&EC)
II.	Textbooks:	Balochistan Textbooks Board (BTBB).
III.	Teacher Education:	Provincial Institute of Teacher Education (PITE).
IV.	Assessment:	Balochistan Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE)
V.	Higher Education:	Directorate of Higher Education
VI.	Access and Equity:	Directorate of Schools
VII.	Finance and Budgeting:	Department of Finance
VIII.	Technical and Vocational Education:	Directorate of Technical Education

Thematic group on Literacy and ALP was not formed because of the very limited number of persons involved. Focal person for Literacy and ALP was included in groups on Access and Equity and Finance and Budgeting. PPIU officials were present in all thematic meetings. Basic policy tools like ‘problem tree’ and ‘objective tree’ were used and in the next phase the groups are expected to develop log frame matrices for their respective areas. SWOTS were conducted in the following organizations:

i.	Directorate of Schools (DOS)
ii.	Directorate of Colleges (DOC)
iii.	Directorate of Technical Education (DTE)
iv.	Board of Intermediate and secondary education (BISE) 
v.	Provincial Institute for Teacher Education (PITE)
vi.	Balochistan Text Book Board (BTBB)
vii.	Bureau of Curriculum and Extension Centre (BOC&EC)
viii.	Balochistan Education Management Information System (BEMIS)
ix.	TVE, Labour and Man Power Department 
x.	Policy Planning and Implementation Unit (PPIU)

In addition to the above, interviews were conducted with Secretaries of School Education, Social Welfare, Labour and Manpower and Additional Secretary Higher Education.

A total of 10 districts were visited to meet with district level officials, teachers, students and the community. The teams also visited schools in the winter zone . District visited were Quetta, Sibi, Jaffarabad, Jhal Magsi, Khuzdar, Lasbela, Gawadar, Turbat, Loralai and Pishin.

A Visioning Exercise was also conducted through a large group representing commerce, trade and industry, political parties, private education institutions, minorities, religious elite and educationists. This exercise provided guidance in developing a future vision of education in the province.

In addition to consultations secondary information was collected from the Department of Finance and other organizations. A number of other secondary sources were also utilized and the UNESCO Situation Analysis was heavily relied upon as a secondary source, especially, for Literacy and ALP and Technical and Vocational Education (TVE). Selected textbooks, examinations and curricula of English, Science and Mathematics were also reviewed.

Sector Plan Development

2.1.2. Sector Plan Development
Sector Plan development process rode on the thematic groups (also referred to as working groups during the process) already formed under the Situation Analysis process. The findings were discussed in each group and recommendations were made, followed by strategies development. Each working group prioritized the areas internally and group members jointly prepared the log frames which form the basis of the current document including the ‘Results’ and ‘Implementation’ matrices in the annexures.

A three day prioritization was not based on any quantifiable formula as an attempt at quantification produced anomalous results. The professional knowledge of the members of the working groups was utilized to prioritise strategies. Workshop was also conducted in addition to the work of the individual working groups.

Orgnanisation of the document

2.1.3. Orgnanisation of the document
The document has been organized into three sets of chapters. The first set explains the background of the BESP, the context, the methodology and implementation and monitoring framework. The last mentioned include a stakeholders’ inclusion strategy and a Performance Assessment Framework (PAF). The next set of chapters, forming the crux of the BESP, pertains to approach for each sub sector, preceded by a chapter on overarching or cross cutting strategies. The last chapter explains the finance situation in the province and the costing outlays for various subsectors.

The best way to understand the sector plan development process is to read the entire Situation Analysis Report before going through the sector plan. However, for convenience of readers and users of the document each chapter on area specific strategies begins with a summarized version of the current situation derived from the ‘Situation Analysis Report’. This is followed by one, or more than one, strategic objectives and then strategies. For most of the chapters the rationale and implementation approach for the strategies has been explained. The same have been captured in the two sets of log frame matrices annexed to the document: the ‘results matrix’ and the ‘implementation matrix’. The former provides strategies, actions, process and output level indicators and a set of assumption and risks. The latter defines the organizations responsible for each action the time frame and cost for activities over the five years planned period.

Download Balochistan Education Sector Plan whole document